Oral History Interview with Ida Rudley

Ida Rudley, born April 22, 1922 in Vienna, Austria, describes growing up in a middle class family; encountering antisemitism even before Hitler annexed Austria; her life changing after the Anschluss in 1938 as anti-Jewish measures took effect; how it was almost impossible for Jews to leave Austria; receiving help from several non-Jews, including an encounter with a German officer who took an interest in her while she and her mother were trying to escape from Austria; being smuggled across the border to Yugoslavia in 1941 and living in Zagreb (now in Croatia) illegally, always on the run, sheltered by both Jews and non-Jews; being warned that the Gestapo was looking for them; turning themselves in to the Gestapo, armed with enough pills to commit suicide, and managing to talk their way out of detention; using forged papers and accompanying a group of German-Jewish orphans bound for Palestine to the Italian part of Yugoslavia; living briefly in Ljubljana, Slovenia; being sent to a concentration camp in Ferramonti, Italy; the other prisoners, including Greek, Italian, and Yugoslavian Partisans as well as Jews; how the Italians ran the camp in a very humane fashion and even told Jews where to hide from the retreating German troops; getting married by a rabbi in the concentration camp and having a civil ceremony later, after liberation by the Jewish Brigade of the British Army in 1943; staying briefly in a transit camp in Cinecitta, run by UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration); and going with her husband and her mother to the United States on a military ship in 1947.

Date: 04/05/1984
Interviewer: Ellen Rofman
Interviewee: Ida Rudley
Language: English
Subject: Antisemitism--Austria--Vienna.
Holocaust survivors.
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Austria--Personal narratives.
Jewish refugees--Croatia.
Jewish refugees--Italy.
Jewish women in the Holocaust.
Jews--Austria--Vienna.
Jews--Legal status, laws, etc.--Austria.
Jews--Persecutions--Austria.
Mothers and daughters.
Passing (Identity)
Women concentration camp inmates.
World War, 1939-1945--Concentration camps--Italy.
Women--Personal narratives.
Austria--History--Anschluss, 1938.
Cinecittà (Italy)
Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Tarsia (Italy)
United States--Emigration and immigration.
Vienna (Austria)
Yugoslavia--History--Axis occupation, 1941-1945.
Zagreb (Croatia)
Rudley, Ida, 1922-
Cinecittà (Displaced persons camp)
Ferramonti (Concentration camp)
Great Britain. Army. Jewish Brigade.
Location: Vienna, Austria
Graz, Austria
Zagreb, Croatia
Ljubljana, Slovenia
Ferramonti di Tarsia concentration camp
Cinecittà displaced persons camp
USA
Permalink: https://hoha.digitalcollections.gratzcollege.edu/item/oral-history-interview-with-ida-rudley/