Oral History Interview with Samuel Makower
Samuel Makower, born January 6, 1922 in Przasnysz, Poland, describes attending a cheder and public school; fleeing after the German invasion on September 1, 1939 with his family to Warsaw and then to Bialystok, Poland; life under the Russian occupation; being offered contracts to work in the Ural Mountains; the harsh climatic conditions and the deprivations of wartime; receiving aid from the Russian people, among whom they lived; his family moving to Minsk, Belarus in 1941 and being trapped one month later when the Germans invaded and established a ghetto; the killings by Germans and Ukrainians; how his family survived by creating hiding places under the floor and within a false wall; her two-year-old niece being sheltered in a Russian orphanage with the aid of a German soldier; escaping with his sister and brother-in-law to join Russian partisans who accepted Jews; partisan life; obtaining food and ammunition from civilians; how they blew up trains and railroads and took some German soldiers as prisoners; a Jewish partisan, “Uncle Vanya”, who sheltered many Jews in the forest; liberation by the Russian Army; helping his surviving family and moving to Stettin (Szczecin, Poland); how at the request of a Zionist group, he secured a train to move 200 Jewish children to Krakow, Poland; entering the University of Berlin and earning a Ph.D. in chemistry; following part of his family to Israel; being unable to find employment in Israel; and immigrating to the United States in 1956.
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Personal narratives.
World War, 1939-1945--Conscript labor--Russia.
World War, 1939-1945--Jewish resistance.
World War, 1939-1945--Underground movements.
Ural Mountains, Russia