Oral History Interview with Ruth (Renee) Kapp Hartz

Ruth (Renee) Hartz (née Kapp), born in 1937 in Palestine to German-Jewish parents, describes moving with her family to Paris, France in 1938; the family having affidavits for the United States and their emigration being disrupted by the American consulate; the invasion of France in 1940 and being sent with other non-French to Colombers, a sports stadium outside of Paris; her father avoiding deportation by joining the French Foreign Legion in Morocco; fleeing with her mother to Normandy with help from the French Resistance; having false papers and hiding on a farm; going to Toulouse and Arthes near Albi in the French Free Zone, where her father reunited with them in 1942; the kindness of people in the small towns toward the persecuted; the willingness of the French police and bureaucracy to collaborate with the Nazis; experiencing hunger and painful separation from her parents when she was hidden in a Sorèze convent; reuniting with her family after one year; being helped with food and hiding by two generations of a Catholic family, with whom they remain in contact; her family moving to Paris after the war; experiencing antisemitism in school and later at the Sorbonne; finding protection hiding her Jewishness as she had during the war; joining the Jewish scouts (Les Éclaireurs) and WIZO, which reinforced her Jewish identity; immigrating to the US in 1958; and her biography titled Your Name is Renee by Stacy Oretzmeyer (published in 1994 by Biddle Publishing Co.).

Date: 02/28/1982
Interviewer: Nora Levin
Interviewee: Ruth (Renee) Kapp Hartz
Language: English
Subject: Convents--France--Sorèze.
Hidden children (Holocaust)--France.
Hiding places--France.
Holocaust survivors.
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Personal narratives.
Identification cards--Forgeries--France.
Jewish children in the Holocaust.
Jewish youth--France--Societies and clubs.
Jews, German--France.
Jews, German--Palestine.
Jews--France--Paris.
Jews--Identity.
Jews--Persecutions--France.
Passing (Identity)
World War, 1939-1945--Deportations from France.
World War, 1939-1945--Jews--Rescue--France.
World War, 1939-1945--Underground movements--France.
Women--Personal narratives.
Arthès (France)
France--History--German occupation, 1940-1945.
Morocco.
Normandy (France)
Palestine.
Paris (France)
Paris (France)--History--1940-1944.
Sorèze (France)
Toulouse (France)
Hartz, Ruth Kapp.
Eclaireuses éclaireurs israélites de France.
France. Armée. Légion étrangère.
Location: Haifa, Israel
Paris, France
Toulouse, France
Arthès, France
Sorèze, France
USA
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